India has the distinction of being the only country that produces all five commercial silks, namely mulberry, tropical Tasar, oak Tasar, Eri, and Muga, the latter of which is unique and exclusive to India.
Mulberry sericulture is mostly practised in the major silk producing states of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Assam and Bodoland (Kokrajhar, Chirang, Baksa, and Udalguri districts of Assam), West Bengal, Jharkhand, and Tamil Nadu. The North East is the only location that produces four types of silk, namely Mulberry, Oak Tasar, Muga, and Eri. The NE region accounts for 18% of the overall silk output in India.
India is the world’s second-largest producer of silk. Mulberry accounted for 70.72 percent (23,860 MT) of the total raw silk production of 33,739 MT in 2020-21, Tasar 8.02 percent (2,705 MT), Eri 20.55 percent (6,935 MT), and Muga 0.71 percent (239 MT) (Provisional).
Due to the difficulties created by the Covid-19 pandemic, the country’s silk output has been curtailed from 2020 to 21. The overall raw silk output in the country for 2020-21 was 33,739 MT, which was 5.8 per cent less than the product obtained in the previous year 2019-20 and represented approximately 86.5 per cent of the annual silk production objective for the year 2020-21.
Bivoltine raw silk production fell by 3.4 per cent to 6,772 MT in 2020-21, down from 7,009 MT in 2019-20. Similarly, Vanya silk, which contains Tasar, Eri, and Muga silks, has decreased by 13.8 per cent, 3.7 per cent, and 0.8 per cent, respectively, from 2019-20 to 2020-21. In 2020-21, the area under mulberry has decreased by 0.8 per cent compared to the previous year. (2.38 million hectares)
Jammu and Kashmir
The Jammu and Kashmir government’s Sericulture Development Department (SDD) has launched an innovative scheme to provide production-based incentives to cacoon growers in South Kashmir’s Anantnag and Kulgam districts.
The sericulture initiatives will aid in the preservation of cocoon farming, allowing it to reclaim its lost heritage industry and dominance.
150 cocoon farmers were given checks. This will ideally enhance farmer motivation and result in higher production next year, increasing their income.
Schemes and grants
1. Mulberry planting incentives under cluster plantation
An incentive of Rs 11.66 per plant is granted in one instalment, with Rs 3 per plant reclaimed (as cost of planting material & beneficiary contribution of 10 per cent).
2. Rearing equipment
A raising kit of Rs 20,000/- (Rupees twenty thousand only) is provided, with a 10% recipient contribution.
3. Building a rearing shed
Rearers are given CGI sheets worth Rs. 17,000/- (Rupees seventeen thousand only), which includes a 10% beneficiary contribution.
4. Development of a rearing house
A grant of Rs. 50,000/- (Rupees fifty thousand only) is offered towards the construction of a raising house, with a beneficiary contribution of 10%.
5. Disinfectant supply
Disinfectants such as Vijetha, bleaching powder, Sanitech, lime, and others are provided at no cost.
6. Health insurance programme for female caregivers
The Central Silk Board (Rs. 642.47/-), the Sericulture Department of Jammu and Kashmir (Rs. 83.47/-), and the recipient (Rs. 55.66/-) each contribute Rs. 781.60/- per person per year to the health insurance premium.